Guide To Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library
BOOK OF HOURS, use of Rome1. ff. 1-12v: Full calendar, alternating red and blue with major feasts in gold; effort has also been made to fill the space horizontally by adding qualifiers; for example, Oblatio virginis devote, Bibiane virginis gloriose, Lazari resuscitati a christo, Servuli confessoris domini. Most saints registered are the martyrs and confessors of the early Church; the calendar includes Marie de nivibus (5 August, in gold), and four feasts of Mark: Translatio sancti marci (30 January), Marci evangeliste domini (25 April, in gold), Apparitio sancti marci (25 June), Sacra sancti marci evangeliste (8 October). 2. ff. 13-20: Mass of the Virgin, with liturgical variations for the year; [f. 15v] Oratio devotissima ad beatam virginem mariam, Obsecro te…[masculine forms; Leroquais, LH 2:346]; [f. 18] Alia oratio ad eandem, O intemerata…orbis terrarum. Inclina mater misericordie aures tue…mihi miserrimo peccatori…[Wilmart, 488-90]; suffrage of Roch; f. 20v, ruled, but blank. 3. ff. 21-36: Pericopes of the Gospels, that of John followed by its usual prayer, Protector in te sperantium…; [f. 25v:] Passion according to John, 18, 1-19, 41, and related prayers: Ad iesum christum oratio, Deus qui manus tuas et pedes tuos…; Alia oratio ad christum, O Benignissime domine iesu christe respicere digneris super me miserum peccatorem…; Devota contemplatio beate marie virginis iuxta crucem filii sui lachrymantis et ad compassionem salvatoris singulos invitantis, Stabat mater dolorosa…[RH 19416]. 4. ff. 36-99v: Hore intemerate virginis marie secundum usum Romane curie, with suffrages of All Saints from lauds to compline; Salve Regina follows compline; Advent office begins on f. 91. 5. ff. 99v-105: Hours of the Conception; f. 105v, ruled, but blank. 6. ff. 106-109v: Short hours of the Cross. 7. ff. 109v-118: Sequitur oratio quam fecit venerabilis beda presbyter de septem verbis…, Domine iesu christe qui septem verba…[Leroquais, LH 2:342]; Oratio sancti Augustini devotissima dicenda trigintatribus diebus genibus flexis ad obtinendam omnem gratiam, O Dulcissime domine iesu christe verus deus…; Devota contemplatio ad veronicam sanctam, Salve sancta facies nostri redemptoris…[RH 18189]; Simbolum Anathasii [sic], Quicumque vult… 8. ff. 118-122v: Short hours of the Holy Spirit. 9. ff. 122v-139v: Penitential psalms and litany, including “bernarde cum sociis tuis” (possibly in error for Berard, who does have companions), and Bonaventure; neither Berard nor Bonaventure are in the calendar. 10. ff. 139v-171: Office of the Dead, use of Rome. 11. ff. 171-188v: Sequuntur septem versus Sanctissimi patris Bernardi, Illumina oculos meos…[RH 27912]; Sequuntur septem orationes Sanctissimi Pape Gregorii, O Domine iesu christe adoro te in cruce pendentem…[Leroquais, LH 2:346]; suffrages of Michael, of one’s guardian angel, all angels, Paul, John, Andrew, James, Lawrence, Vincent, Sebastian, Stephen, George, Christopher (in the prayer of this suffrage, f. 179, feminine forms have been added above the masculine, possibly in the hand of the scribe), Ambrose, Gregory, Jerome, Augustine, Francis, Anthony of Padua, Dominic, Benedict, many martyrs, Catherine, Lucia, Barbara, Agatha, Apollonia, Mary Magdalene, Ursula and the 11,000 virgins, Genevieve, Anne; ends: Horas presentes fecit facere litteratissimus vir magister franciscus de mello pro sorore sua domina maria Manuel; f. 189r-v, ruled, but blank. Parchment, ff. ii (parchment, with paper flyleaf glued to the recto of f. i) + 189 + i (parchment, with paper flyleaf glued to the verso); 200 × 133 (123 × 70) mm. 18 24 38(through f. 20) 4-68 78(+7, f. 51) 8-118 126(through f. 91) 13-144 156(through f. 105) 168 178(+9, f. 122) 18-258 + 3 leaves; catchwords occasionally present in inner right corner; 20 long lines ruled in pale red ink. Written in a humanistic script varying in size according to liturgical function. Lavishly decorated with 25 full page miniatures, set within painted gold architectural frames by the illuminator referred to as the Master of Morgan 85 by Plummer, Last Flowering, nn. 108b, 109b, 118; miniature(s?) apparently derived from woodcuts of Albrecht Dürer, cf. his “Small Woodcut Passion,” datable ca. 1509-11, as the source of the miniature on f. 65v.1 Ten of these, depicting sorrowful scenes, are in grisaille (grey, white, gold, flesh tones, and red for the blood), and tend to be on a somewhat larger scale than the full color illustrations. Most of the grisaille pages are on the verso and face a full color illumination on the recto for the Hours of the Virgin: ff. 36v-37 (Matins), Christ before Pilate and the Annunciation; ff. 51v-52 (Lauds), Scourging at the pillar and Visitation; ff. 61v-62 (Prime), the Mocking of Christ and Nativity; ff. 65v-66 (Terce), Pilate washing his hands as Christ is led away, and Annunciation to the shepherds; ff. 69v-70 (Sext), the Road to Calvary and Adoration of the Magi; ff. 73v-74 (None), Crucifixion and Presentation in the temple; ff. 77v-78 (Vespers), Deposition and Flight into Egypt; ff. 84v-85 (Compline), Entombment and Assumption of the Virgin. The two remaining illustrations in grisaille are on f. 26 (Passion according to John), Betrayal of Jesus, while Peter cuts off Malchus’ ear, and on f. 140 (Office of the Dead), Raising of Lazarus. The remaining full color illustrations are: f. 13 (Mass of the Virgin), the Virgin teaching the Christ Child to read; f. 91v (Advent office), the Virgin surrounded by her attributes, each labelled on a scroll (as often found in early printed books of hours); f. 100 (Hours of the Conception), the meeting of Joachim and Anne before the Golden Gate; f. 106 (Hours of the Cross), the Risen Christ and emblems of the passion; f. 110 (prayers), two angels supporting a chalice with the wound of Christ; f. 118v (Hours of the Holy Spirit), Pentecost; f. 123 (Penitential psalms), David penitent. Evangelist portraits for the pericopes, ff. 21, 22v, 23v and 25, 10-line, within gold bar frames, outlined in red; similar frames enclose the 9- to 6-line miniatures for each of the suffrages. Calendar decoration consists of illustrations of the monthly occupations on the recto and of the signs of the zodiac on the verso, placed in rectangles across the top of the folio (55 × 77 mm). A less skillful painter has done the illustration of the calendar, the suffrages, and probably the Attributes of the Virgin, f. 91. Initials, 3- or 2-line, in white acanthus on a gold ground, or in colors on a colored ground with infilling of flowers or berries on gold; 1-line initials, gold, on a ground alternating red, blue or light brown; ribbon line fillers in colors with many variations or as gold logs. The rubrics alternate line by line gold, red, and blue. Every page, except for those with full page miniatures, with full borders, some of which are traced, but with variation in colors and details and in many styles: as multicolored acanthus leaves against a ground of painted gold with black flecks; as illusionistic flowers, or pearl-like berries, or grapes, and insects, also against a painted gold ground; as rope designs; as trellis patterns; as fantastic vases or cornucopiae; most frequent is the compartmentalized border with flowers and grotesques, in considerable variety: background colors may include unusual dark tones of black, grey, brown or olive green; divisions may be in the shape of hearts, fleur-de-lis, scrolls (some with legends: Ave Maria Gratia Plena, or, Domine Iesu Christe fili dei vivi). Many borders bear the initials of Franciscus de Mello (ff. 14, 35, 60v, 65, 138v, 161v, 166v, 182v), of his sister, Maria Manuel (ff. 25v, 32v, 35v, 39v, 42v, 138, 166, 178v), or “A.S.” (ff. 60, 77, 90v, 134). Bound, s. XVIII, in Dutch or Flemish red morocco, with elaborate gilt tooling of a center rosette, fans at the angles, and scattered cupid’s heads, roosters, birds, bees, flowers; green silk book marks and sheets protecting the full page illustrations; gilt edges; original green slip case, tooled with the same fan pattern at the angles. Written in France at the beginning of the sixteenth century at the order of Franciscus de Mello for his sister, Maria Manuel, as stated in the colophon on f. 188v, where there is also a coat of arms: per pale: 1, gules two bars or and six roundels argent, 2, 2 and 2; 2, gules a lion rampant or; the dexter side is similar to the impaled shield for Mello e Castro in Rietstap, vol. 4, pl. 183, which is gules a double traverse cross and six roundels argent, 2, 2, and 2. Belonged to William Horatio Crawford of Lakelands, Cork; his sale, Sotheby’s, 12 March 1891, lot 1609 to Quaritch; acquired at that time by Robert Hoe: Grolier Club (1892) n. 99 (proof sheet for that catalogue entry remaining with the manuscript); Cat. (1909) pp. 90-92; his sale, Anderson, New York, 1912, pt. IV, n. 2344 with plate of f. 65v, to G. D. Smith. Source and date of acquisition by Henry E. Huntington unknown. Bibliography: De Ricci, 93.
France, s. XVIin
1 We are grateful to Prof. James Marrow for the identification of the artist and his source.
C. W. Dutschke with the assistance of R. H. Rouse et al., Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library (San Marino, 1989). Copyright 1989.
Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, California.
Electronic version encoded by Sharon K, Goetz, 2003.
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