Guide To Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library
BOOK OF HOURS, use of Rome1. ff. 1-2: f. 1, Title page, in lapidary style in gold letters across the frieze of a temple: “D. Claud Durfe. Reg. Legat. Dicatum”; between the columns in gold square capitals: “Heures de Nostre Dame a l’usaige de Rome escriptes au dict lieu l’an MDXLIX par M. Franc. Wydon et dediees a Messire Claude D’urfe Chevalier de l’ordre du Roy Tres Chrestien et son Ambassadeur au saint siege apostolique”; ff. 1v-2: coat of arms (see below) and an altar; below, 16 lines of verse, “Inventa Alcidae est, catulo duce, purpura fulgens…” 2. ff. 2v-21: Full calendar in French; the rubrics for the months begin with etymological information; entries in the calendar also include ancient Greek and Roman festivities. Three contemporary events (in the hand of the scribe): A tel iour et l’an mil CCCCC vous naquistes monseigneur Messire Claude D’urfe, a semblable iour aussi l’an 1524 fut prins a Pavie Francoys de Valoys, premier de ce nom Roy de France (24 February); Et a tel iour 1529 fut prise et saccaigee la ville de Rome, par le Duc de Bourbon (6 May); Ce iour cy l’an 1549 vous Monseigneur Messire C. D’urfe fustez apelle au sainct college de Mons. S. Michel par le Roy nostre Sire Henry II et faict et cree Chevalier de son ordre (29 September). The full page illustrations for the months of February, April, May, June and November have been cut out, with consequent loss of text; the remaining illustrations have 4-line inscriptions in Latin, referring to the pagan scene depicted. 3. ff. 21v-28v: Pericopes of the Gospels and the Passion according to John; f. 29, with border, but blank. 4. ff. 29v-56: Office of the Virgin, use of Rome, with suffrages of All Saints from lauds to compline; Salve Regina follows compline. 5. ff. 56v-68: Penitential psalms and litany. 6. ff. 68v-79v: Office of the Dead; three lessons at matins. 7. ff. 80-82: Short hours of the Cross. 8. ff. 82v-84: Short hours of the Holy Spirit. 9. ff. 84-85v: Suffrages of the Trinity, Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Claude; Ad Deum optimum maximum, Clementissime mi deus, a te rerum omnium principio incepit oratio mea…; ends, on a decoratively framed ground: Regi seculorum immortali, invisibili, soli Deo honor et gloria in secula seculorum Amen. Parchment, ff. i (paper) + i (parchment) + 85 + i (parchment) + i (paper); 280 × 195 (232 × 155) mm. 18(-4, 8) 28(-2, 4) 38(-6) 4-118 122. 23 long lines, also in the calendar; no ruling visible. Written by Franc. Wydon, who signed the dedication on f. 1; he has used a variety of scripts; square capitals on f. 1, italic on the cartouches with Latin verses on ff. 1v-2 and on those in the calendar; the main body of the text is in an upright humanistic script. For another manuscript made for Claude d’Urfé, and, although not signed by Wydon, in the same italic script as used in HM 1102, and with the same decoration, see London, Victoria and Albert Museum, L. 1964-19571, a Traicté à la louenge de Dieu by Victor Brodeau with the inscriptions (f. 2v) “Escript à Rome l’an Iubilé du 1550” and (f. 30) “Escript pour Monseigneur Claude d’Urfé, chevalier de l’ordre et gouverneur de Monseigneur le Daulphin, Conseillier du roy et son Ambassadeur au saint Siege apostolique”; for plates, see J. I. Whalley, The Pen’s Excellencie; the calligraphy of western Europe and America (Tunbridge Wells 1980). A third manuscript, unsigned, but written in a humanistic script attributable to Wydon is Paris, B.N. n.a. lat. 15062, a pontifical made for Claude d’Urfé’s successor in Rome, Georges d’Armagnac; the manuscript is dated 1557 in the borders of ff. 34v-35 (although Georges d’Armagnac is not known to have been in residence in Rome at that date); see V. Leroquais, Les Pontificaux Manuscrits (Paris 1937) 2:240-41 and pl. 138 (illumination only). Wydon’s signature does appear in a book of meditations copied for Georges d’Armagnac in Rome, 1543, now Chantilly, Musée Condé, MS 102 (1398); see L. Dorez, Le psautier de Paul III (Paris ) pl. 30-32: pl. 30 shows an architectural opening folio similar to that in HM 1102, and the same humanistic script as the main body of text in HM 1102; pl. 31-32 show the italic script. In the Chantilly manuscript, Wydon identifies himself as “britannus,” which Dorez interprets as “breton” (p. 24, n. 2). Decorated with 24 almost full page illustrations in bistre: f. 1v, coat of arms (see below); f. 2, an altar for sacrifice; f. 2v, Janus; f. 5v, Mars; f. 10v, Europa and the bull; f. 12v, Pluto and Persephone; f. 14v, Vulcan; f. 16v, Bacchus; f. 19v, the Temple of Vesta; f. 29v (Matins), Annunciation; f. 35 (Lauds), Visitation; f. 41 (Prime), Nativity; f. 43v (Terce), Annunciation to the shepherds; f. 45v (Sext), Adoration of the Magi; f. 47v (None), Circumcision; f. 49v (Vespers), Flight into Egypt; f. 53v (Compline), Coronation of the Virgin; f. 56v (Penitential psalms), Nathan exhorting David to penitence; f. 62v (Litany), Castel Sant’Angelo, with the angel sheathing his sword, and a pope, presumably Gregory the Great, although he may be wearing the Medici arms, kneeling before the propitious vision, while the procession crosses the bridge; f. 68v (Office of the Dead, Vespers), Raising of Lazarus; f. 72v (Office of the Dead, Matins), Pietà; f. 77 (Office of the Dead, Lauds), Last Judgment; f. 80 (Hours of the Cross), Crucifixion; f. 82v (Hours of the Holy Spirit), Pentecost. The four Evangelist portraits and the miniature of Jesus in Gethsemane for the Passion gospel, ff. 21v, 22, 22v, 23v, 24, are 6-line water color. Initials, 6- to 2-line, in painted gold on gold-flourished grounds of blue, purple, green, brown, yellow, rose; 1-line initials in painted gold. Full borders on every page, consisting of narrow purple bands with silver leafy tendrils; in ovals set within the top and bottom band are landscapes or ruins; in the ovals in the bands on the two sides are blue tendrils on a gold ground; square insets of color at the four corners. See Dorez, op. cit., pl. 30-32, for similar borders, which he tentatively attributes to Wydon himself. Rubrics throughout in red. Bound, s. XVIIIex, in French red morocco; marbled endpapers; gilt edges. Written in Rome, 1549, by F. Wydon for Claude d’Urfé (1501-58), ambassador of the King of France to the Holy See; his arms appear on f. 1v, ensigned with the collar of the order of St. Michael; see Rietstap, vol. 6, pl. 69. For a history of the d’Urfé library and a list of the surviving books (including HM 1102), see A. Vernet, “Les Manuscrits de Claude d’Urfé (1501-1558) au Château de la Bastie,” Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres: Comptes-Rendus (1976) 81-97. The d’Urfé library was bought in 1777 by the Duc de La Vallière; his sale, Paris, 1784, vol. 1, n. 317 (catalogue, dated 1783, compiled by Guillaume De Bure; entry for this manuscript carefully copied out on f. i verso) to De Bure; Duquesroy, Paris, 7 March 1803, n. 28. Belonged to Edward Thurlow, 1st Baron Thurlow (1731-1806); his sale, Christie’s, 1804, n. 298 to Hume (apparently a nom de guerre to disguise that of J. White of Fleet Street, the bookseller from whom Lord Thurlow had acquired his books originally); see Dibdin, Bibliomania (1842) 448-50, for an account of the sale; John White Catalogue 20 (January 1806) n. 466; acquired by Jeremiah Harman, and sold by Evans, 20 May 1844, n. 1154. The manuscript was in the collection of Prof. Manuel John Johnson (1805-59) of the Oxford Observatory, when it was seen and described by G. F. Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great Britain (London 1854) 3:116-18; Johnson sale, Sotheby’s, 27 May 1862, lot 37 to the dealer Toovey. It appears as property of Stephen Ram in the catalogue of the London bookseller Phillips, 17 December 1862, n. 92; P. Deschamps; Baron S. de la Roche Lacarelle, whose red morocco ex libris is on the front pastedown; his sale, Paris, 1888, n. 21 to Morgand. Belonged to the Count R. de Lignerolles; his sale, Paris, Porquet, 1894, vol. 1, n. 14 to the Marquis d’Albon; the entry from this catalogue is printed by Dorez, op. cit., 49-50; Dorez makes reference to the “Album” of plates for the Lignerolles sale, including one of this manuscript (not available to us). Belonged to Robert Hoe: Bierstadt (1895) p. 34, with a plate of f. 35; Cat. (1909) pp. 118-20; his sale, Anderson, New York, 1912, pt. III, n. 2078, with a plate of f. 56v, to G. D. Smith. Source and date of acquisition by Henry E. Huntington unknown. Bibliography: De Ricci, 92.
1 We thank J. I. Whalley for her kind help.
2 We are indebted to M. François Avril for examining this manuscript and for providing the information on its date.
C. W. Dutschke with the assistance of R. H. Rouse et al., Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library (San Marino, 1989). Copyright 1989.
Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, California.
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