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This is an archived exhibit of The Bancroft Library, University California, Berkeley.

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Editions of texts are abbreviated throughout the exhibition following the conventions set by John F. Oates, Roger S. Bagnall, Sarah J. Clackson, Alexandra A. O'Brien, Joshua D. Sosin, Terry G. Wilfong, and Klaas A. Worp, Checklist of Greek, Latin, Demotic and Coptic papyri, ostraca and tablets (September, 2004).


Beard, Mary, and et al., eds. 1991. Literacy in the Roman world. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series 3. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Bowman, Alan K., and Greg Woolf, eds. 1994. Literacy and power in the ancient world.Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hanson, Ann E. 1991. Ancient illiteracy. In Literacy in the Roman world. Ed. M. Beard et al. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series 3. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Harris, William V. 1989. Ancient literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Roman Tebtunis

Alfö;ldy-Rosenbaum E. 1980. Ruler portraits on Roman game counters from Alexandria. InEikones: Studien zum griechischen und rö;mischen Bildnis. Ed. Hans Jucker. Beiheft zur Halbjahresschrift Antike Kunst 12. Bern: Francke.

Bagnall, Roger S. 1992. Census Declarations from Tebtunis. Aegyptus 72:61–84.

Grenfell, B.P., A.S. Hunt and E.J. Goodspeed. 1907. The Tebtunis papyri II. Egyptian Exploration Fund, Graeco-Roman Memoir 52. London: Oxford University Press.

Gallazzi, Claudio and Gisèle Hadji-Minaglou. 2000. Tebtynis I. Fouilles de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire 42. Cairo: IFAO.

Lutz, Henry Frederick. 1927. Egyptian tomb steles and offering stones of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnology of the University of California. Leipzig, J. C. Hinrich.

———. 1930. Egyptian statues and statuettes in the Museum of Anthropology of the University of California. Leipzig, J.C. Hinrich.

Mendoza, B. 1999–2000. Tebtunis. In Sites along the Nile: Rescuing ancient Egypt.Exhibition at the P. A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.

O'Connell, Elisabeth R. 2007. Recontextualizing Berkeley's Tebtunis Papyri. In Proceedings of the XXIVth International Congress of Papyrology, Helsinki 1–7 August 2004. Ed. J. Frö;sén et al. Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 122:2:807–826. Helsinki: Societas Scientiarum Fennica.

Quaegebeur, Jan. 1975. Le dieu égyptien Shaï dans la religion et l'onomastique. Orientalia Lovaniensia analecta 2. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

Rondot, Vincent. 2004. Tebtynis II: Le temple de Soknebtynis et son dromos. Fouilles de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire 50. Cairo: IFAO.

Walker, Susan (ed.). 2000. Ancient faces: Mummy portraits from Roman Egypt. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art; Routledge.


Language, Literacy and Education

Adams, J.N. et al. (eds.). 2002. Bilingualism in ancient society: language contact and the written word. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

Clarysse, Willy. 1993. Egyptian scribes writing Greek. Chronique d'Égypte 68:186–201.

Cribiore, Raffaella. 1996. Writing, teachers, and students in Graeco-Roman Egypt. American Studies in Papyrology 36. Atlanta: Scholars Press.

———. 2001. Gymnastics of the mind: Greek education in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Keenan, J.G. 1974. Two papyri from the University of California collection: P.Tebt. II 556 and 586. In Akten des XIII. Internationalen Papyrologenkongresses, Marburg/Lahn, 2–6 August 1971. Münchener Beiträge zur Papyrusforschung und antiken Rechtsgeschichte 66. 211–214. Munich: Beck.

Leach, Bridget and John Tait. 2000. Papyrus. In Ancient Egyptian materials and technology, ed. Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tassier, Emmanuel. 1992. Greek and Demotic school-exercises. In Life in a multi-cultural society: Egypt from Cambyses to Constantine and beyond, ed. Janet H. Johnson. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 51. Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

Shelton, J.C. 1969. Two Tebtunis papyri from the collection at Berkeley. Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 6:27–34.

Watson, Janet. 2001. Speaking volumes: orality and literacy in the Greek and Roman world. Mnemosyne, bibliotheca classica Batava. Supplementum 218. Leiden; Boston: Brill.


Reading and Copying Literature

Bagnall, Roger S. 1992. An owner of literary papyri. Classical Philology 87 (1992): 137–40.

Clarysse Willy. 1983. Literary Papyri in Documentary "Archives." In Egypt and the Hellenistic World. Studia Hellenistica 27. 43–61. Louvain.

Eisenhut, Werner. 1994. Dictys Cretensis Ephemerídos belli Troianilibri. Bibliotheca scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner.

Keenen, James G. 1971. Two papyrus fragments of the Odyssey. California Studies in Classical Antiquity 4:199–202.

O'Connell, Elisabeth R. 2003. Reading papyri, writing history. Bancroftiana 122 (Spring):1, 13.

Pack, Roger A. 1965. Greek and Latin literary texts from Greco-Roman Egypt. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Rossum-Steenbeek, Monique van. 1998. Greek readers' digests?: studies on a selection of subliterary papyri. Mnemosyne, bibliotheca classica Batava Supplementum 175. Leiden; New York: Brill, 1998.

Stephens, Susan A. and John J. Winkler. 1995. Ancient Greek novels: the fragments, introduction, text, translation, and commentary. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Tait, W.J. 1977. Papyri from Tebtunis in Egyptian and Greek. Texts from Excavations 3. London. Egypt Exploration Society.

Turner, E.G. 1998. Greek papyri: an introduction. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

van Minnen, Peter. 1998. Bookish or Boorish. Journal of Juristic Papyrology 28:99–184.


Medical texts

Andolini, Isabella. 1995. Trattato di medicina su papiro. Florence: Istituto papirologico G. Vitelli.

———. 2001. Greek medical papyri. Florence: Istituto papirologico G. Vitelli.

Anti, Carlo. 1931. The cult of the crocodile in ancient Egypt: Interesting discoveries at Tebtunis in the Fayum: The sanctuary of Secnebtuni, the crocodile god and the sacred way to his temple. In Illustrated London News 30 May. 908–911.

Hanson, Ann E. 1985. Papyri of Medical Content. In Papyrology. Ed. N. Lewis. Yale Classical Studies 28. 25–47. New York: Cambridge University Press.

———. 2001. Text and context for the illustrated herbal from Tebtunis. In Atti del XXII Congresso Internazionale di Papirologia, Firenze, 23–29 agosto 1998. 2 vols. Ed. I. Andorlini, et al. 585–604. Florence: Istituto Papirologico "G. Vitelli."



I thank Raffaella Cribiore, Jacco Dielemann, Susanna Elm, Mark Griffith, Ann Hanson, Todd Hickey, Cathleen Keller, Maria Mavroudi and Kim Ryholt for their comments on the exhibit text. Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology Conservator Jane Williams kindly prepared objects for the physical exhibition and Conservator Madeleine Fang provided most of the photographs.

Elisabeth R. O'Connell